In 1805, Lucca was annexed by Napoleonic France. Subsequently, the region was relinquished to Napoleon’s sister, Elisa Baciocchi and Niccolo continued to serve as primary violinist for the Baciocchi court as well as while providing private lessons to her husband, Felice. Then in 1807, Baciocchi became the Grand Duchess of Tuscany and her court was transferred to Florence. Paganini was still part of Baciocchi’s entourage; however by the end of 1809 he left to resume his freelance career once again. Paganini returned to touring in his hometown and surrounding areas of Parma and Genoa. It wasn’t until a concert at La Scala in Milan in 1813 that truly put Niccolo on the map. As a result of this concert, Paganini began to attract the attention of other prominent musicians across Europe. This concert was also the introduction for Niccolo and singer, Antonia Bianchi who had a short romance followed by a son, Achilles Cyrus Alexander. His fame burst across Europe with a concert tour that began in Vienna in August, 1828, stopping in every major European city in Germany, Poland, Paris, Britain, and Bohemia until February, 1831 in Strasbourg. His technical capability and his enthusiasm to present his pure talent received much critical acclaim.
Throughout his whole life Niccolo struggled with bouts of different illnesses. Although no medical proof exists, it has been reported he was affected by Marfan syndrome. In 1822, Paganini was diagnosed with syphilis. His remedy included mercury and opium, which unfortunately came with serious health and psychological side effects. Then in 1834, while still residing Paris, he was treated for tuberculosis. Though his recovery was considerably quick, his future career became inconsistent with frequent cancellations due to various health problems, from the common cold to depression and lasted anywhere from a couple days to a few months. In September 1834, Paganini sadly put an end to his concert career and returned to Genoa. Paganini devoted his time to the publication of his compositions, violin methods, and taking upon new students. In 1836, Paganini returned to Paris to set up a casino. Disastrously, its immediate failure left him in financial ruin, and almost penniless. In attempt to recoup his losses, he auctioned off all of his personal effects, including his musical instruments. Christmas of 1838, he left Paris for Marseilles, after a brief stay, he journeyed to Nice where his condition sadly worsened. In May 1840, the Bishop of Nice sent Paganini to a local parish priest who would perform the last rites. In denial, Paganini assumed the sacrament was premature, and he refused. A short week later, on May 27 1840, Paganini died from internal hemorrhaging before a priest could be summoned. It took four years and an appeal to the Pope before the Church let Paganini’s body be transported to Genoa, however it remained unburied. Niccolo Paganini was finally laid to rest in 1876, in a cemetery in Parma. Additionally, in 1893, the Czech violinist, František Ondříček, persuaded Paganini's grandson, Attila, to allow a viewing of the violinist's body. After this bizarre event, Paganini's body was finally reinterred in a new cemetery in Parma in 1896.